玻璃酸钠在骨科和运动医学相关疾病中的应用专家共识(2017年修订版)

2017-11-14   文章来源:中国医师协会骨科医师分会运动医学专业委员会    点击量:4935 我要说

1 背景

为规范玻璃酸钠(hyaluronan,HA)在骨科和运动医学相关疾病治疗中的合理应用,为临床医生提供较为详实、准确、实用的HA临床应用指导意见,人民卫生出版社《中国医学前沿杂志(电子版)》编辑部曾先后于2010年1月9日和2012年9月16日组织并邀请了全国数十位知名骨科和运动医学专家在北京召开了“玻璃酸钠在骨科中的应用专家研讨会”[1]和“玻璃酸钠在骨关节炎治疗中的应用专家共识研讨会”,并最终达成共识。《玻璃酸钠在骨关节炎治疗中的应用专家共识(2012年版)》[2](以下简称为2012版共识)全文发表于《中国医学前沿杂志(电子版)》2012年第11期。

2012版共识自2012年11月发表以来已历时5年,深受广大骨科和运动医学科医师的好评,HA的临床应用已被收录入国家卫生计生委发布的《骨关节炎临床路径》(2016年版),进一步确立了HA在骨关节炎(osteoarthritis,OA)治疗中的重要地位;同时,结合近年来2012版共识在骨科和运动医学领域的应用情况以及循证医学证据和临床实践经验的不断积累,由中国医师协会骨科医师分会运动医学专业委员会和人民卫生出版社《中国医学前沿杂志(电子版)》编辑部联合发起的《玻璃酸钠在骨科和运动医学相关疾病中的应用专家共识》修订工作应运而生。

2017年9月23日,“玻璃酸钠在骨科和运动医学相关疾病中的应用专家共识修订研讨会”在宁波召开,来自全国的20余位骨科和运动医学领域知名专家参加了研讨会,并就修订内容进行深入讨论。专家们本着严谨、客观、公正的科学精神,经过反复推敲、论证,数易其稿,历时2个月,最终定稿。修订版共识旨在使更多骨科、运动医学科医师和相关疾病患者获益。

2 玻璃酸钠概述

1934年,Meyer等[3]发现HA广泛分布于人和动物各组织的细胞外基质(如玻璃体、关节滑液、滑膜、软骨等),是一种高分子量多糖,相对分子量为20万~720万Da。HA包含内源性(即人体自身分泌的)和外源性(即外来补充的)两种。当内源性HA的产生和代谢出现异常,并导致组织、器官的生物学功能障碍,出现临床症状时,可通过补充外源性HA达到治疗效果。外源性HA的制备来源主要为发酵、提取及化学合成(交联),哪种工艺更好,目前尚无定论。目前的研究表明:总体来看,上述来源的HA均安全、有效。

2.1 作用机制 临床研究表明:HA对于关节疼痛有长期疗效,HA注射后5~13周,患者疼痛改善11%~54%。但其具体作用机制仍存在一些争议,总结文献,其主要作用机制如下:

(1)保护软骨细胞:通过与HA受体细胞黏附分子(cluster of differentiation 44,CD44)和透明质酸调节的运动受体(hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor,RHAMM)结合,减少白介素(interleukin,IL)-1β、前列腺素E2、基质金属蛋白酶(matrix metalloproteinase,MMP)-1、MMP-2、MMP-3、MMP-9、MMP-13及自由基的合成和释放,降低炎性细胞的数量,减少软骨细胞凋亡,促进软骨细胞增殖[4-6]

(2)促进蛋白聚糖和糖胺聚糖合成:外源性HA通过CD44和细胞间黏附分子1(intercelluar adhesion molecule-1,ICAM-1)结合的影响,促进软骨细胞合成及蛋白聚糖和糖胺聚糖分泌[7-10]

(3)抗炎:通过与HA受体CD44和RHAMM结合,减少肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)、IL-1β、IL-6、IL-17、MMP-13及诱导型一氧化氮合酶(inducible nitric oxide synthase,iNOS)的合成[11-14]

(4)机械润滑:外源性HA增加滑液非牛顿流体的特性和黏弹性。当关节处于低撞击频率时(如正常行走时),HA发挥润滑功能,减少组织间的摩擦;当关节处于高撞击频率或负重时,滑液由黏性特征转换为弹性特征,缓冲应力对关节的撞击,对关节软骨等发挥保护作用[15-17]

(5)保护软骨下骨:通过与HA受体CD44结合,抑制MMP-13和IL-6[6,18-21]

(6)镇痛:通过降低关节内机械感受器的牵张机械感度、减少致痛性神经肽的分泌,达到镇痛效果[22-24]

(7)促进内源性HA分泌:通过促进内源性HA合成来改善病理性关节液的性状,持续缓解症状,延缓病情进展[25-29]

(8)保护半月板:通过润滑发挥保护半月板的作用[30]

2.2 药物代谢 大多数HA产品的半衰期不超过1天。注入关节腔的HA,2小时可渗入至滑膜组织、韧带、相邻肌肉组织及肌间隙,6小时可进入软骨组织,3~8小时在血浆中可检测到,72小时在关节腔的残留量仅为投药量的10%[31,32]。通过多种方法可将HA分子连接在一起,产生交联HA,其在关节内具有较长的半衰期,可达1.5~9天[33-35]

关节组织内浓度:在关节液中几乎不代谢而渗入滑膜组织。高浓度分布于滑膜和韧带组织内,其次为半月板和关节软骨。

代谢:降解呈低分子化后进入血液,主要在肝脏被代谢[36]

排泄:代谢产物大部分以二氧化碳形式经呼吸运动排出,一部分经尿和粪便排泄。

2.3 安全性及不良反应 HA生物相容性良好,能在体内完全代谢,无毒、无菌、无趋化作用,不引起异物反应,不与细胞和蛋白相互作用,因而总体安全性良好[37]

HA的常见不良反应主要为注射局部和关节出现轻微或中度疼痛和肿胀积液,发生率为1%~15%,偶有头痛、发热及药疹。上述不良反应多于注射后24小时内发生,患者一般能耐受,无需特殊处理,2~3天后症状消失。注射技巧、注射后患者活动以及产品纯度等均为影响局部不良反应发生的因素[38-51]。感染并非HA的不良反应,而是由于注射全程无菌操作技术不当所致。研究表明,生物发酵来源的HA产品与禽类提取来源的HA产品因治疗相关不良事件导致的停药率相似[45,49-51]

2.4 目前国内市场部分已有HA产品(表1,以首字母排序)

3 玻璃酸钠在骨科和运动医学相关疾病中的应用

根据目前国内外文献报道,HA可用于多关节OA、运动损伤性疾病及关节镜术后,对于缓解患者疼痛、改善关节功能等具有良好疗效,特别适用于非甾体抗炎药(non-steroid anti-infl ammatory drugs,NSAIDs)和镇痛药疗效欠佳,或无法使用上述药物的患者。有证据表明,HA治疗早、中期OA具有较好的卫生经济成本效益,可减少NSAIDs等镇痛药用量[52-56]。通过对文献中HA在骨科和运动医学相关疾病中的应用及疗效分析,总结适应证、禁忌证及用法等如下。

3.1 适应证和禁忌证

3.1.1 适应证

(1)大关节OA非急性肿胀期,常用于膝、肩、踝、髋、肘、腕等关节,尤其是轻、中度OA(Kellgren-Lawrence Ⅰ~Ⅲ级),对于缓解疼痛、改善关节功能等具有良好疗效,且安全、耐受[46,57-75]

(2)用于NSAIDs等镇痛药禁忌或无效的患者,可缓解疼痛、改善关节功能[46,54,75,76]

(3)用于不适合全膝关节置换(total knee arth­roplasty,TKA)手术或希望延缓手术时间的重度膝OA(Kellgren-Lawrence Ⅳ级)患者[75,77-81]

(4)用于上述关节OA关节镜清理术后,可缓解术后关节疼痛、改善关节功能[82-91]

(5)用于关节镜下半月板损伤修整成形术后,可缓解术后短期膝关节疼痛、改善关节功能,减少NSAIDs用量[84,92-94]

(6)用于冻结肩、肩峰下撞击综合征、肩袖部分损伤等疾病及关节镜术后,能缓解疼痛、改善关节功能[95-101]

(7)用于股骨髋臼撞击综合征,能缓解疼痛、改善关节功能,但并不能延缓疾病进程[102-107]

(8)用于踝关节距骨骨软骨损伤术后,能缓解疼痛、改善关节功能、促进微骨折术后纤维软骨再生[88,108]

(9)用于肌腱病,如冈上肌腱腱病、跟腱腱病及扳机指等,可预防粘连、减轻疼痛、改善关节功能[109-113]

3.1.2 禁忌证

(1)关节内感染,关节穿刺局部皮肤破溃感染。

(2)凝血功能异常。

(3)对禽类和蛋类过敏患者应慎用。

(4)不能排除其他疾病引起的关节明显肿胀和积液。

3.2 用法及用量(具体参照不同产品的使用说明执行)

(1)用法:①对于关节内疾病,HA的使用方法为关节腔内注射,不能注入软组织内。严格遵循无菌操作规范和正确的关节穿刺技术,保证药物注射入关节腔尤为重要。避免反复穿刺损伤软组织及关节软骨;注射前有关节积液时应先将其抽除。②对于肌腱病,HA应准确注射于病变肌腱的腱鞘或滑囊内。

(2)用量:每个关节每次注射剂量为1支单位,每周注射1次;根据药物不同,3~5周为1个疗程。

(3)重复治疗:患者接受HA治疗应根据病情进展而定,如病情需要仍适合HA治疗,一般可6~12个月后重复治疗[40,114]

(4)HA在急性炎症缓解、手术创伤反应及肿胀减轻后用于关节内注射效果更佳[73,80-83]

(5)HA最好不与糖皮质激素及局部麻醉药在体外混合后一起注射[115],但可分管先后注射,联合使用。

3.3 不良事件处理

(1)注射局部及关节腔反应:表现为注射局部轻-中度疼痛、肿胀或关节内少量积液,一般多能耐受,无需特殊治疗,也可采取休息、冰敷或使用NSAIDs等处理措施。一般2~3天后症状改善并恢复[40-47,51]

(2)过敏反应:很少见,主要表现为荨麻疹、恶心、呕吐、发热、水肿(颜面、眼睑等)、颜面发红等,偶见过敏性休克[40,45,51]。如发现过敏反应,立即停药,并作相应抗过敏处理。对禽类和蛋类过敏患者应慎用HA。

(3)注射后关节化脓性感染:少见,一般可能因医务人员消毒不严格引起,应注意与注射后关节腔一过性积液鉴别,如确诊为关节感染则应按感染性关节炎治疗[40,45,51,57]

4 结束语

HA可长期缓解疼痛、维护并改善关节功能,其不良反应轻微且发生率低。另外,HA可减少NSAIDs等口服镇痛药的用量,特别适用于老年、既往有消化道溃疡病史、出血史、心脑血管疾病病史的患者,可减少其他药物带来的胃肠道不良反应及心血管不良事件。HA可用于治疗膝、肩、踝、髋、肘、腕等关节的OA,以及上述关节和肌腱的运动损伤、退变性疾病,也可用于关节镜术后作为黏弹性药物注射。HA的使用应在准确诊断的基础上,严格把握其适应证,掌握正确的使用方法和剂量,以及联合用药,以达到最佳的临床效果。

《玻璃酸钠在骨科和运动医学相关疾病中的应用专家共识(2017年修订版)》参考了国际、国内最新文献,同时结合国内实际情况,并结合HA使用的安全性、有效性、实用性及经济性,为我国临床医师在骨科和运动医学领域充分、规范地使用HA提供参考意见。

会议主席:

陈世益(复旦大学附属华山医院)

王坤正(西安交通大学第二附属医院)

专家共识委员会名单:(按姓氏拼音排序)

白伦浩 毕 擎 陈世益 戴国锋

黄竞敏 李 箭 李 棋 李国平

李宏云 李卫平 林 朋 刘 宁

刘玉杰 吕 伟 吕红斌 孙 康

王 飞 王 洪 王 蕾 王 青

王坤正 王满宜 卫小春 伍 骥

邢更彦 徐卫东 薛庆云 杨 柳

查振刚 张 磊 张晓南 郑 江

赵金忠

执笔专家:

李 箭(四川大学华西医院)

李 棋(四川大学华西医院)

李宏云(复旦大学附属华山医院)

陈世益(复旦大学附属华山医院)

利益冲突声明:本共识的修订过程中,赛诺菲(北京)制药有限公司、上海昊海生物科技股份有限公司、山东博士伦福瑞达制药有限公司、昆明贝克诺顿制药有限公司赞助了修订会议。

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引用本文:中国医师协会骨科医师分会运动医学专业委员会.玻璃酸钠在骨科和运动医学相关疾病中的应用专家共识(2017年修订版)[J].中国医学前沿杂志(电子版),2017,9(11):1-8.

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